It was the first standard-issue semi-automatic rifle.Called "the greatest battle implement ever devised" by General George S. Patton,the
Garand officially replaced the bolt-action M1903 Springfield as the standard service rifle of the United States Armed Forces in 1936.
During World War II, the M1 gave U.S. forces a distinct advantage in firefights against their Axis enemies, as their standard-issue rifles
were more effective than the Axis' slower-firing bolt-action rifles.
The M1 is an air-cooled, gas-operated, clip-fed, semi-automatic, shoulder-fired weapon. This means that the air cools the barrel; that the
power to cock the rifle and chamber the succeeding round comes from the expanding gas of the round fired previously;
It is loaded by inserting an en-bloc (i.e., it goes into the rifle's action and functions as part of the rifle) metal clip (containing eight rounds)
into the receiver; and that the rifle fires one round each time the trigger is pulled. After the eight rounds have been shot, the empty clip
automatically ejects with an audible "ping" noise.
In 1938, the Thompson submachine gun was adopted by the U.S. military, serving during
World War II and beyond.
There were two military types of Thompson SMG.The M1928A1 had provisions
for box and drum magazines. It had a Cutts compensator, cooling fins on the barrel,
employed a delayed blowback action and its charging handle was on the top of the receiver.
The M1 and M1A1 had a barrel without cooling fins, a simplified rear sight,
provisions only for box magazines, employed a straight blowback action and the charging
handle was on the side of the receiver.
The staff of Savage Arms looked for ways to simplify the M1928A1,
producing a prototype in Feb 1942 which was tested at Aberdeen Proving Ground in March
1942; Army Ordnance approved adoption as the M1 in April 1942. M1s were made by Savage
Arms and by Auto-Ordnance. M1s were issued with the 30-round box magazine and would
accept the earlier 20-round box, but would not accept the drum magazine.
Over 1.5 million military Thompson submachine guns were produced during World War II.
In 1938, the Chief of Infantry requested the Ordnance Department to develop a "light rifle" or carbine, though the formal requirement for the weapon type was not approved until 1940
This led to a competition in 1941 by major U.S. firearm companies and designers. The prototypes for the carbine competition were chambered for a new cartridge,
the .30 Carbine, a smaller and lighter .30 caliber (7.62 mm) round very different from the .30-06 in both design and performance. The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in muzzle energy (ME) and
muzzle velocity (MV).
Essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loading cartridge, the .30 Carbine had a round-nose 110 gr (7.1 g) bullet. From an 18 in (460 mm) barrel,
the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately 1,970 ft/s (600 m/s).
The first M1 carbines were delivered in mid-1942, with initial priority given to troops in the European Theater of Operations (ETO).
The M1 carbine with its reduced-power .30 cartridge was not originally intended to serve as a primary weapon for combat infantrymen, nor was it comparable to more powerful
assault rifles developed late in the war. Nevertheless, the carbine was soon widely issued to infantry officers, American paratroopers, NCOs, ammunition bearers, forward
artillery observers, and other frontline troops. Its reputation in front-line combat was mixed. The M1 carbine gained generally high praise for its small size, light weight and firepower, especially by those
troops who were unable to use a full-size rifle as their primary weapon. However, negative reports began to
surface with airborne operations in Sicily in 1943, and increased during the fall and winter of 1944.
5.2 lb (2.4 kg) empty
5.8 lb (2.6 kg) loaded w/ sling
Length 35.6 in (900 mm)
Barrel length 18 in (460 mm)
Cartridge .30 Carbine
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire Semi-automatic (M1/A1)
850–900 rounds/min (M2/M3)
Muzzle velocity 1,990 ft/s (607 m/s)
Feed system 15 or 30-round detachable box magazine
Sights Rear Sight: Aperture; L-type flip or adjustable, front sight:
Wing Protected Post
Carbine, Cal .30, M1A1
Folding stock, 15-round magazineParatrooper model
About 150,000 produced
Carbines originally issued with the M1A1 folding stock were made by Inland, a division of General Motors and originally came with the early "L" nonadjustable
sight and barrel band without bayonet lug. Inland production of M1A1 carbines was interspersed with Inland production of M1 carbines with the standard stock.
Stocks were often swapped out as carbines were refurbished at arsenals. An original Inland carbine with an original M1A1 stock is rare today.
M1 CARBINE WITH FOLDING STOCK
GO TO PAGE 2
Go to page 2
Major General Edward Brooks (behind Eisenhower) demonstrating M1 Carbines to Dwight
Eisenhower, Winston Churchill, and Omar Bradley, England, United Kingdom, 15 May 1944